As the light from the moon peers in through the lattice of my cell, as it always has and most undoubtedly will continue to do so. It is time once more to return from the corner where my head has rested, to the glitter of the moonlight. As I slowly crawl, weak as never before, to the cell bars that have long confided me; I grip one bar, then the next and the next, slowly bringing myself up from the floor. The moonlight captures my attention as it caresses my face with its glow, it is another beautiful night with little sign of travesty, the breeze that follows my thoughts, is as calm as nature itself and as nature seems to relief once again, the feeling of the breeze eludes me. Temperance captures my soul. The wish to capture this small period of relief from the long agonizing day sets in, making me once again drop my head in sadness. Tears rush from my face, small droplets of life, draining from the windows of my soul. It is much to live as one is in happiness and security, but as the tides change and moments shift to his retraction, then life reveals its true head. Another thought passes me, like the breeze itself, another follows it; All of it is temporary, the thoughts in my mind repeat themselves, ever more getting louder with each repetition, All of it is temporary, from the stars above to marble below, all must come to an end sometime or another…never is anything eternal, never is anything immortal. Overwhelming myself with tears, ever more increasing, I drop to the ground. The light, very much still on my face now finds accompanied with it, drops of life; which drip from the windows of a long aching and heartfelt soul. As the moonlight twinkles in the droplets of the dead and cold, I feel the breeze caress my face once more.
Drifting aimlessly in the gentle breeze, seemingly going nowhere, well I bore my head in sadness; a small dandelion befalls me with humble a landing as ever I saw. Averting my head from the place where weepiness be my friend, gaze upon the small thing was the task that my eyes had set, and as if paused in time emotions fleeted me and temperance regained its hold over me once more. The small dandelion had seen its share of hard winds, with many of the small florets of its body absent from view; its stem, crooked from sea faring winds that long had besieged it. Yet, regardless of the travesty it had faced, regardless of the many florets that were taken from it; many small bits of its life. It still had managed to have landed somewhere new…somewhere different. In its small state of being it had managed to traverse great distances, through great winds and great travesties, losing much of itself to winds that spur like titans to man. Yet it continuously mounted on through the rain and sun, through the night and day; all of which to get to another place, in another corner of the globe. Only to be picked once more up by the wind; which would take it beyond the heavens and beyond the clouds to a new land once more.
All that has befallen me can be captured in that small dandelion, traversing the unknown reaches of the globe. In the moonlight that is creeping in through the lattice of my cell, to the time where fate will return I back to the corner; Amor fati. All can be shown with the representation of the floating dandelion. It never knows where it will go and it never knows how it will get there, it just does whatever the moment demands. Turning away for a moment from the dandelion, I once again stare at the moonlight with a different thought in mind, If the dandelion, with all its small essence and its small size can take the winds of any storm, still managing to survive every moment; then most certainly can one such as I, seek to do so as well. As my eyes ponder the left over moonlight, so too does my soul return to its place. One day. I ponder to myself, just…one day.
As the sun begins to break the dawn and the moonlight fades, the wind picks up once more, this time with it comes gently sailing, the dandelion; dancing on the breeze. As if transfixed by its movements, there I stand, my eyes following it as it waltzes across my cell to the bars that confide me. It knows not of limitations…it would seem. Slowly passing through the bars, its stem gets caught by grit…it is stuck…it is helpless. Raising my hand to the bars, my fingers thin as sticks; manages to get between the bars to the place where the dandelion remains captive. Thoughts that were left pondering now become attentive to the dandelion; whatever had been is no more. The winds become jackals; howling ferociously as the sun continues to rise. Now more than ever my heart begins to race as I try with intensity to dislodge the feeble thing from its captivity. “There we go…come now… just a little more.” Comforting myself with thought, I slowly pull the stem, careful as ever to not break more of the florets off, doing what one can to free what is left. As the Jackals howl more and more; drawing closer and closer with every gust, before they can lay harm to the feeble thing there comes, wide stretched and full of glory, the rising sun; glaring over the dawn break. The jackals were not to destroy the dandelion this time!
Through the passage of mere moments, it seemed as if the dandelion was to be injected with life; as it slowly became undone from its captivity, it began once more to waltz in the wind now gentler in passage. It had escaped the cell, and began to venture forward into the glare of the sun. Watching from within the cell and through the bars, I could see it slowly drifting into the glare of the sunlight; a sudden sense of pride overwhelmed me. A slow tear drop crawled down my cheek, as the windows of my soul became fogged with the overwhelming sense of loss and pride; an odd feeling was upon me, one that had only rarely sought to rear its head up. The feeling of accomplishment for the liberty bestowed upon me to liberate the small dandelion from the clutches of the oncoming winds, but also of one of loss for allowing the dandelion to leave me. There it goes…my thoughts now returning, There it goes…to new places; a dandelion a drift in the sea of possibilities. Only titans know what fate has in store for It. Pulling my head away from the sunlight, crawling slowly back to the corner that has long been my home; I whisper softly now, well my eyes begin to close once more…the words “Amor Fati”…“Love of Fate.”
Written By: Anthony Avice Du Buisson
Artwork By: Rainer Jacob
Opened up to the world as it was in days long past when ships were not made of metal through the hard works of labour, and we had yet to grasp the stars from a new perspective through the eyes of science; Mighty Athens ‘the Free and beautiful city’ (city of all people) be opened to the world in the values attributed to her. For she once be the capital of the ancient world, responsible for rich art and culture, clever and wise philosophers and scientists and the home of all weary a distant traveller. Her city be the birth place of those setting sale to pursue the wisdom of the ancients, being the place by which mighty man, small in stature, came to teach the future generations the value of knowledge. It be the place of sexual freedom, the place where sex be embraced and not discounted. Where begotten lovers cast out for their differences came to call home, where they embrace in the naturalness of their being despite deformities; expressing and exchanging their passions for one another with word, touch and spiritual connection only known to lovers who have had their ships of hope burnt, only to seek repair in the heart of Mighty Athens. For we are beautiful within… the shell of the physical form that surrounds our soul does no way lay vestige claim on the beauty that resides behind the masks we wear. No matter how deep our sense of soul is, no matter how much cuts dealt upon the outer shell, no matter even how much taint we have on our hopes; beauty, no matter how cliché it may be, is true to self; it is this truth that Mighty Athens knows best of all. For Mighty Athens was the place of those seeking to lay claim to it, when their homes and their hopes had been destroyed by war, their banners burnt and their hopes tainted; it was Athens who gave them a new banner and new hope, for Mighty Athens knows all pain.
The Persian wars had given birth to her, though an old and mighty city Athens is, her form as known in culture was birthed by these wars. The mighty hordes led by King Darius of Persia and later his son Xerxes were both defeated by the combined forces and fleets of the Greek state. Under one banner, soldiers from both Ionia and Magna Graecia came together, (despite their differences) uniting to lead a rebellion against their occupiers. Men such as Aeschylus defeated the mighty Persians and liberated themselves from the control of the Persian Empire…. Athens was freed from her dormant state by the power of those willing to liberate themselves from tyranny; truly a value that has since lent itself to the birth of modern nations today. It was out of chaos that the state had been born! Pericles, greatest of statesman (holding leadership of mighty Athens after the 2nd Persian war) was elected by the people out of their free-choice and under him reigned a glorious age. The temples that had once laid on The Acropolis (the place at which mighty temples of the citadel had been) was burnt to the ground by Xerxes’ men at the close of the second Persian war, yet Pericles, in aching heart of this tragedy; erected out of the ashes the Parthenon, and other mighty structures such as the Propylaia and the Erechtheion, as symbols to the world. As if a mighty phoenix rose from the ashes with wings adorned for all to see, she came into being as the city of the people. Her physical form was cut but her beauty within had been true; and it was this beauty that remains to this day, she is truly the ‘universal city’! Representing to us a set of values of the highest order; those of liberty, equality, prosperity and the pursuit of wisdom, all of these values be attributable to the builders of the city, and to the protectors; the vanguards. Vanguards who stand aloft in the early morning hours, of mornings that have and that will be; weather not halting them, strife not weakening them, tragedy not dampening their spirits, they be strong alike, mighty and bold with courage immense; they be Gatekeepers, patrolling the borders of the city state on watch for the hordes that may lay siege. They are the ones keeping fair watch…In their hands Athens resides, in spirit for all of time.
We dream at night of glorious places that escape our world; we sail to distant shores yet to be travelled, we traverse high peaks yet to be climbed, we engage in laughter, embrace in moments yet to be experienced; we go away from the world we are living in to seek a better world. Happy dreams are built upon Athenian values; the values that escape these become our nightmares. When we spend time with those we love we are taking a value that is human, that is Athenian in nature. What makes us human is our ability to emphasise and articulate language that conveys ideas and emotions, to people that may not necessarily have those same ideas or emotions. In this regard children seem to hold highest the values of Athens, they do not see the masks that adults wear, they see what lay behind the mask; what they see is that which transcends the human form. The soul that leaks from an aching heart befallen tragedy and befallen exorbitant ruthlessness; children have no concept of boundaries that adults do, they care not for what banner one stands under, what civilization one comes from, what past one has. What they care about is the soul. In this regard children as young and naive as they maybe of the world, can teach us about ourselves; before the subsequent conditions that might change their views and incorporate them into regimes of iron. Learning from children can be as simple as looking in the mirror, some of us hold values that are childish, this is in no way bad, in fact, it maybe more beneficial if we hold onto these values. For the love and understanding of children, maybe an embodiment of that which we seek to have in our dreams. Athens represents humanity in its best position (it is humanity at its peak!), when it is not twisted to go on the values of tyranny, when it is not twisted to climb the ladder of power or embrace in ideologies that seek to embody a class of individuals rather than all individuals….Is not Athens the city we wish to return to?
The cornerstone by which these values rest upon is universal and holds strongly to a sense of common ownership (commonality) where boundaries are not seen, or divisions made. It is an outside look of the world as it is where nations are indivisible from one another, where anthems dedicated to one group of people against another cannot be heard; where the only thing that can be seen is a spinning globe a drift in the blackness of space. When we seek to erase those boundaries between ‘us’ and ‘them’, we create a universal state of ‘we’. This is what it means to look to Athens; it is to look to a world where we are one. Allowing people to become aware of this sense of commonality makes a great deal of difference to how we view the world. We all have attributes that are different to one another; we all speak different languages, all belong to different races and ethnicities, we all have different beliefs and ideologies, we all hold to different perceptions of the world we live in. Yet when we focus on what makes us different, conflict is more likely to arise; it is more important for us to focus on what we have in common, rather than seek out the differences between one another. In times of great strife the power to come together can be the only thing stopping two groups from annihilation. In conflicts that rage on between two groups of people, one insisting they have ownership of this land and one insisting that they also have ownership over that same land; the important thing to realise is that the land they fight over is a part of the world, and those two different groups of people both occupy the same world, they therefore share something in common. The more common things that can be found, the more chances of erasing that divide which exists among the two warring groups. Flags are held up by many nations as things to be desired, one might belong to this nation and feel proud of belonging, but is that person not just proud for that sense of commonality? What is a nation but just a group of people who unite around a set of common values? Should we then not focus on what divides, and instead focus on what unites?
Where dreams become foundations of the world of tomorrow, we should dream for each other rather than for neither other. When we seek places beyond that which is, we seek out Athens and all she is. We place down all our dreams in her, for she is us, and we are her; she is what we long to be and in her we see, that which should be. Love should not be concealed especially when we are a part of a world that longs for the richness of universal love and desperate appeal; liberty be not kind but she be fair and we should be inclined to not bind her by chains of tyranny nor chains of apathy, we should instead seek to defend against fiends who would wish to do so. By equality in her wake will give rise to prosperity and in this prosperity all can seek to lay claim to, for she is the dream by which we lay the foundation of tomorrow upon…she is where we long to be.
Written By: Anthony Avice Du Buisson
All of our ancestors down through the eons of time have lived here on a small seemingly insignificant planet drifting aimlessly in the void of space, each of them living out their lives briefly on the surface of this planet, underneath the radiant sun for but a glimpse of cosmic time; totally devoid of realization to the true size of themselves in the universe. Through the eons, slowly but surely creating for themselves from the tools they had available, with the resources they had; cultures of grandiose sizes and eloquence, languages of sparse diversity, religions and myths to explain their origin, philosophy to contemplate their place among the cosmos, science to understand the world around them, art to capture their imagination, and all the things that now make our species what they are, slowly progressing as the planet they stood on slowly drifted aimlessly in the void. We were trapped in a long slumber to the rest of the universe we were. Waking only in recent decades with those same but more advanced tools of our origins, breaking the hold of the planet’s surface, boldly with courage verging into the unknown, into space; we found ourselves staring back at the small spec. It was in this awakening, that we found our true size, being much smaller than we had imagined; many gave a sigh to this realization. The anthropocentrism that long gripped our ancestors, the notion that all of life is for humanity and that he is the be-all-to-end-all; finally was challenged by the realization of the real size of our planet in the universe. Others averted their eyes from the places where they hung their heads and gazed upwards to new heights, to new distances, to new dreams. We have finally done it, finally we have broken free from the cage that has long held us stationary on this drifting planet and have opened the way into the heavens. With space travel and the notion of travelling into the unknown, it has given us humanity hope for the future, we have unleashed the imagination, and it is from the stars we make our dreams fully realised. Stars that had long been the fuel for our ancestor’s imagination, now give us insight as to our real origins, our real place in the cosmos.
Many individuals have emphasised the importance of a cosmic perspective; in 1980 Carl Sagan released to the world his “Cosmos: A personal Voyage” astronomy television series, that captivated individuals into the imagination of space and the future of human exploration. In it was emphasised the choice of life or destruction, many have through the eons chosen life over destruction; and thus we are still here. In our different lands, across our many oceans, we all are in some way apart of this choice. What we did and what we do is important. Valuing each opportunity to do it, takes time and effort, the road may be long and the path rough, but the voyage is not meaningless for it serves a greater purpose to our species, and to the way the future will span out. Whatever the road for you, or for your fellow man, one thing can be said for certain that the universe is a part of you and you apart of it. It sounds surreal, even overwhelming, but when you understand that the atoms in your body can be traced (as a prodgie of carl Sagan’s put it) “To the crucibles that were once the centres of high mass stars that exploded their chemically rich guts into the galaxy, enriching pristine gas clouds with the chemistry of life.” Then one can realise that when looking out at the night time sky, or looking at the passing worker ants, what they do is as much of importance to life as we do. In our own ways we shine each and every day with unique qualities, we are able to do great things when we put our minds to it; and we may stuff up, we have stuffed up quite a lot, but yet we stand here together, only across separated boundaries made by ourselves. The fault is in our stars, as well as the glory is in our stars (Stephen fry); whatever we make of the life we have, is of us and when it is done our bodies will be broken down and recycled, with the memories of us being left within the people we have touched. Yet before that point we live within the moment, experiencing every good and bad thing that makes life worthwhile. That is what it means to live within reality. The cosmos is open to us as it has always been, but now we are just a little bit closer to reaching what lay beyond our solar system, what may lay beyond our galaxy, and dare one says the universe!
Enjoy the journey of life for what it is; a privilege.
In its most basic and simplest definition anarchism means “without rulers”, the common association of communities free of hierarchy or state rule. Through mutual arrangement (mutualism) and absence of central power, all men have autonomy of their own individual state and over their own interests, in which they exist as a part of a group of individual states working socially together without the need to invoke external overarching central power. Thoughts on anarchism are wide spread but generally Anarchism is divided into two philosophical camps and it is these camps that will later be revisited; the individual and the social. The Individual camp of anarchism known as individual anarchism focuses solely on the liberties, for the interest of the individual against state and social control of others; anti-statism and individualism are two main factors of this camp. Social anarchism focuses instead on the social or “collective state’s” liberties, everyone is to have an obligation to the interest of the community against the state; anti-statism and collectivism are two main factors of these camps. These are the main dividing blocks of anarchist thought and this is where the main contention line will be drawn, as these camps are important in understanding anarchism as a political philosophy. Equally as important when discussing philosophy and politics is the economic elements associated with anarchism which is to be noted, such economic systems that explain how the state will run once achieved and the theory has been put into practice; economic systems of anarcho syndicalism, examples of which are anarcho-communism and anarcho-capitalism. It is these economic systems that when added with the political philosophy, leads to what we understand anarchism to be. It is good to remember that words such as ‘Anarchy’ are misunderstood, generally considered to mean a temporary state of disorder; in popular television anarchy has been long portrayed as “disorder” or “chaos” this bastardization of the word has been at the forefront of people’s interpretation (to the honesty of myself, this generally had long been my understanding) yet what they do not realise is the word has been butchered by pop-culture and by the misuse of it by naive socialists and pseudo-intellectuals. In some respects the word has “poisoned” people’s perceptions towards anarchism; which means people will write off anarchy as simply disorder, this is why the writer of this paper is going to expressively explain the word in the full hope that people may be enlightened and get a better understanding of what can be called “Anarchist thought’.
Now it has been said Anarchism is the political philosophy that holds to the contention of the state as being immoral, corrupt and contemptible towards its own people. However let it be explained and expressed it promotes the notion that people are better without state control, and thus are better without rulers. At the heart of its philosophy is anti-statism which means that people are generally better off without state intervention or intervention by the government. The state is the organized entity overarching the people, it is the “shackles” that bind the people from reaching their true potential; Mikhail Bakunin (Russian philosopher and collectivist anarchist during the late 19th century) emphasises this sentiment, remarking in his book “Statism and anarchy”(1872) that “If there is a State, there must be domination of one class by another and, as a result, slavery; the State without slavery is unthinkable – and this is why we are the enemies of the State.”. This lovely quote can almost sum up the opinion of anarchists (not all) to the government. All this can be described as the base for anarchism, now is time to establish its supports.
A “state of anarchy” (a state that is built on the political philosophy of anarchism) before 19th century had only been in the minds of thinkers in the 15th-19th centuries. The first sign of Communities un-officiated by governments and external forces such as rural communities or better known followings (Christian anarchism emphasises the abolishment of human governments as being iconoclastic in nature, corrupt, instead favouring social gatherings and cooperation for theological reasons) had when the state did interfere and impose power on the subjugated people, the natural response was to revolt in violent disorderly means (this is possibly where anarchy comes from in popular thought) was in the sixth century. However only in France did this system of thought be truly introduced and added philosophical merit in the later 18th century, William Godwin (a thinker and French academic) noticed that the people of France during the French revolution used violent means instead of their own common sense and reason to change the system; he noticed that the system was made up of rules and it was these rules that society was based around. People followed these rules, and when the rules did not fit, they rebelled and made their own rules; thus allowing for this vicious cycle of statism to continue. Instead of violent means and more rules, Godwin proposed the abolition of rules for the interest of reason and common cooperation (hence “without rulers”), instead of using violent methods, the people could instead evolve the state in a peaceful manner. He went on to evolve this thought, and can be credited as one of the first modern anarchist thinkers. Proudon (a contemporary of Godwin) is however responsible for creating an element of anarchism; spontaneous order, the notion that organization can come about without the need of a central power orchestrating it “liberty is the mother, not the daughter, of order” (Pierre-Joseph Proudon) the individual has the right to protect his own interests. It is this element that created the steardy support in the theory of anarchism. It is in this theory that there occurred a divide between the extent of the individual’s interests and the extent of his mannerism towards the social order he was in.
In itself anarchism is usually divided into two camps, the first being the individual camp and the second being the social camp. Both camps have one thing in common anti-statism, they both are opposed to the government. Yet where they really differ is in attitudes of the individual to the post-state, this is to say his attitudes after the government has been rid of (which will be later expressed). When the individual is his own autonomous state, then generally anything according to his interests are considered by him to be his. Individual anarchism can vary in attitudes to post-state; some may say that their interests can be achieved through their own means; this can mean seizure of others property, resolving issues by means of violence and so on (illegalism and individual reclamation). Other individuals may take mends of prescribing philosophies that do not necessarily go towards the social order, more then it goes to the interests and values of the individual; such as the free expression of love, property, and a form of sharing willingly, however this differs from ideology to ideology. Individual anarchism attracts largely to intellectuals, as it expresses highly the value of using one’s own cognitive faculties, being able to freely express the liberties of the individual both mentally and physically; and in this respects democracy’s only difference is it has an element of statism, one could dare say it be different otherwise. Social anarchism involves the need for the individual to pertain to the collective state; this means in other words the means of production are controlled mutual common ownership within a community, without the interference of centralised power or state warranty. Many social libertarians may hold to such an ideology and the element of capitalism (the means of production in the hands of private companies) is absent, which many anarchists would argue is a good thing (not anarcho-capitalists, more social anarchists). Marxism in some respects plays along the same line of social anarchism, yet in itself it wishes to create classless societies, which in some respects are the intentions of anarchism.
Yet there is a debate between the two, this can be shown with the debate between marx and Bakunin, between Marxism and anarchism; to cut the long story short, both anarchism and Marxism have both themselves means of wishing to attain the perfect socialist utopia. The methods they use are why there was such a debate between the two men in The First International (a hot spot for intellectual discussion in the early to late 19th century). Bakunin differed with Marx, in that he promoted the idea of “revolutionary socialism” the idea that the means of production and private ownership is abolished and instead collective ownership of the means of production be established. Marx wanted to have a proletariat dictatorship, whereas Bakunin instead advocated collective rule through revolution to establish a socialist utopia. At the end of this dispute Bakunin went his separate ways with Marx; this is why Marxism and anarchism have salient similarities because of their thought processes and the means by which they achieve them is the only thing that really differs. This dispute touches on economics, which can be described as the nails used to strengthen the supports.
Anarchism by itself is not sustainable in the long run, achieving a society without order is simply impossible; this is why a system based on ideology and economy is established to order and structure the system (anarchism + Ideology). Now some may critique that such structured systems of community cooperation inevitably lead to government, in some respects that is understandable, as if we were to look through and scower the pages of history we can see that small tribal communities if left to their basic cooperation and mutual cooperation, inevitably organize themselves, eventually leading to some form of organized government. So in what regards does anarchist economics have to give that is different from other forms of economy? Well there is a number of anarchist economic doctrines such as anarcho-communism and anarcho-capitalism. Which come as a result of anarcho syndicalism, each has their own means of pertaining either an alternative form of economics to an existing form, or establishing new existing ones separate of state. So taking a look at each is well worth the interest.
Anarcho syndicalism is the method of achieving an alternative system of economy, which wishes to replace an existing capitalist system of economy through the means of the active revolutionary acts of organized trade unions; when organized unions seize industrial centres they can hold a lot of power, and can use this power to influence the economy towards a socialist syndication and can protect itself from the state. In laments words anarcho syndicalism means “industrial takeover”. A good example of anarcho-syndicalism can be seen in 1936 in the region of Catalonia in northern Spain, the industrial heart of Spain. During this time there was a lot of tension between socialist and trade union groups with the national party (the party who had control of the government) in that area; the C.N.T (national confederation of labour) and the F.A.I (Iberian Federation of anarchists) were the main socialist and trade union groups, along with the POUM (General Workers union) they captured the industrial area of Catalonia in what has been called “Revolutionary Catalonia” and created an anarcho-syndicalist state. This meant they cut themselves off from the rest of the country; as a result it started a civil war lasting three years between militia socialist workers from the C.N.T and F.A.I and the catholic nationalist federation that ruled Spain. However the C.N.T and F.A.I were up against great odds as the Spanish National party requested aid from countries such as Italy Germany and even Russia, which only escalated the country into more tension and conflict; well they fought with the nationalist troops in the hill side they also were fighting other socialist groups primarily the POUM within the anarchist state itself. This double front inevitably led to the downfall of the anarchist state, as it was taken over by nationalist troops (primarily because of the heavy munitions from Italian and German suppliers) who themselves were led by General Francisco Franco in 1939. The system of economy that was syndicated for the Catalonian anarchist state was that of Anarcho which called for the common ownership of the means of production and with the people working people. In fact if one had to push the envelope further on this similarity you could say that to achieve an anarcho communist system, you have to use anarcho syndicalism (revolutionary unionism) to achieve this method. The C.N.T and F.A.I can be seen as both an anarcho syndicalist state as well as an anarcho communist state, with this being said it must be noted that anarcho communism focuses very much on the community factor of anarchism, and wishes to synthesis individual anarchism with that of social anarchism. Karl Marx explains the common idea of a anarcho communist state in his “Critique of Gotha Program” (1875)
“In a higher phase of communist society, after the enslaving subordination of the individual to the division of labour, and therewith also the antithesis between mental and physical labour, has vanished; after labour has become not only a means of life but life’s prime want; after the productive forces have also increased with the all-around development of the individual, and all the springs of co-operative wealth flow more abundantly—only then can the narrow horizon of bourgeois right be crossed in its entirety and society inscribe on its banners: From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs!”
Even though Marx was writing about Communism, anarcho communist proponents works on the line “From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs” the economic system is grounded on this idea and it is this principle that they believe allows the individual to thrive. If this can be the one end of the extreme economic systems of anarchism, then anarcho capitalism would be the other extreme.
Anarcho capitalism is very different from other forms of traditional anarchism; traditionally anarchists are against capitalism as system of economy and instead focus more on social economic doctrines; some argue that anarcho capitalism is not anarchism at all but instead a mere right wing libertarian economic system (this is the criticisms of others, not the contention of this writer but it has been brought up). However anarcho capitalism is much different in this regard, if one could say its camp of philosophy it would be very much in the individual anarchism camp, as instead of a system made up of the means of production being commonly owned, it instead focuses on the individual’s sovereignty over his own private property, in an open market. This is to say that state would be absent and when the state is absent people will naturally barter with one another to attain goods and services in a voluntary system. This system can be highlighted in the example of a car crash; individuals would usually have to have one another’s insurance companies argue about costs (the middle man) however in an anarcho capitalist system the middle man is cut out instead resolving issues through direct resolution (pay me, I pay you, don’t pay me I break you). It is the synthesis between liberal economics and individual anarchism.
In conclusion what can be said about anarchism? As a system pertaining to the contention that society is better off without government interference; anarchism seeks to dislodge the system by which a state is a part of. The main thought behind anarchism is distinct between that of the individual and that of the social order, and it is among these differences that anarchism truly is realised as a political philosophy. With the supports of economic doctrines such as anarcho communism through anarcho syndicalism and anarcho capitalism to name a few, anarchism seeks to create a society for the people. Governments to anarchists may seem immoral, but not entirely to some such as me. Sure the government can be corrupt at times, even idiotic but what must be remembered is that the government is made up of the people, and the people are not always free of fault. When we take into account the vast times humanity has sought to gain a system that works, it has always in some way gone to fault, and this is entirely because we are evolved mammals with prefrontal lobes too small and adrenal glands too big. We have developed more cognitively meaning that we find better and more efficient ways of organization and centralization. A society without rulers is simply impossible for this reason, but it must not be blown off what anarchism has the potential power to do. Its notions of individual liberties and the individual’s right to pursue his interests are very modest, and something this writer can agree upon, but the long standing of an anarchist state has yet to be realised, and probably for the better, people still need to instead focus on how to make the state better rather than simply removing it from the picture all together. Liberal Democracy may be a crap shoot, but it’s the best crap shoot we have thus far and it would seem to have lasted quite some time already, capitalism is also the best economic system that we have come up with. It is because of democracy that individuals have the rights they do now, and it is indeed the people’s job to maintain what the government can do, if the government should abuse the people; it is the people’s job to remove the powers that be.
Written By: Anthony Avice Du Buisson